Care During Chemotherapy and Beyond
Generic Name: Leucovorin
Other Names: Citrovorum Factor, Folinic Acid
Drug type: Leucovorin is a reduced folic acid. Used
in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to either enhance effectiveness, or
as a "chemoprotectant." (For more detail, see "How this drug works" section
What This Drug Is Used For:
- In combination with fluoruracil to treat cancers such as; colon and rectal, head
and neck, esophageal, and other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
- As an antidote to effects of certain chemotherapy drugs such as methotrexate.
- Treatment of megaloblastic anemia when folic acid deficiency is present.
Note: If a drug has been approved for one use, physicians
sometimes elect to use this same drug for other problems if they believe it might
How This Drug Is Given:
- As an injection or short infusion through the vein (intravenous, IV).
- As a tablet by mouth.
- As an injection into the muscle (intramuscular, IM).
- The amount of leucovorin that you will receive and how it will be given depends
on many factors, including your height and weight, your general health or other
health problems, and the type of cancer or condition being treated. Your doctor
will determine your dose, route and schedule.
Important things to remember about the side effects of leucovorin:
- The side effects with treatment of leucovorin are likely attributable to other chemotherapy
medications being given in combination with leucovorin.
- When given in combination with fluorouracil (5-FU) the side effects of fluorouracil
may be more severe. (see fluorocuracil).
- When given in combination with methotrexate, leucovorin is given to lessen the side
effects of methotrexate. (see methotrexate)
The following are possible side effects of leucovorin:
- Allergic reaction: rash, itching, facial flushing. Rarely severe.
- Nausea and vomiting (rare)
When to contact your doctor or health care provider:
Contact your health care provider immediately, day or night, if you
should experience any of the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath, wheezing, difficulty breathing, closing up of the throat, swelling
of facial features, hives (possible allergic reaction).
Always inform your health care provider if you experience any unusual symptoms.
- Before starting leucovorin treatment, make sure you tell your doctor about any other
medications you are taking (including prescription, over-the-counter, vitamins,
herbal remedies, etc.). Do not take aspirin, or products containing aspirin unless
your doctor specifically permits this.
- Inform your health care professional if you are pregnant or may be pregnant prior
to starting this treatment. Pregnancy category C (use in pregnancy only when
benefit to the mother outweighs risk to the fetus).
- For both men and women: Do not conceive a child (get pregnant) while taking leucovorin.
Barrier methods of contraception, such as condoms, are recommended. Discuss with
your doctor when you may safely become pregnant or conceive a child after therapy.
- Do not breast feed while taking this medication.
- If given leucovorin tablets take at evenly spaced intervals around-the-clock.
- Drink at least two to three quarts of fluid every 24 hours, unless you are instructed
- Get plenty of rest
- Maintain good nutrition
- If you experience symptoms or side effects, be sure to discuss them with your health
care team. They can prescribe medications and/or offer other suggestions that
are effective in managing such problems.
Monitoring and Testing:
You will be checked regularly by your health care professional while you are taking leucovorin, to monitor side effects and check your response to therapy.
How This Drug Works:
Leucovorin is a compound similar to folic acid, which is a necessary vitamin.
It has been around and in use for many decades. Leucovorin is a medication frequently
used in combination with the chemotherapy drugs fluoruracil and methotrexate.
Leucovorin is not a chemotherapy drug itself, however it is used in addition to
these chemotherapy drugs to enhance anti cancer effects (with fluorouracil) or to
help prevent or lessen side effects (with methotrexate).
Fluorouracil when given alone stays in the body for only a short time. When
given in combination with leucovorin, leucovorin can enhance the binding of fluorouracil
to an enzyme inside of the cancer cells. As a result fluorouracil may stay in the
cancer cell longer and exert its anti cancer effect on the cells. Leucovorin
has almost no side effects of its own but when used in combination with fluorouracil
it can increase the severity of side effects of that drug.
Methotrexate exerts its chemotherapeutic effect by being able to counteract and
compete with folic acid in cancer cells resulting in folic acid deficiency in the
cells and causing their death. This action also effects normal cells which
can cause significant side effects in the body, such as: low white, red and platelet
blood cell counts, hair loss, mouth sores, difficulty swallowing, diarrhea, liver,
lung, nerve and kidney damage. These complications and side effects
of methotrexate can be either prevented or decreased by using leucovorin, which
provides a source of folic acid for the body's cells. Leucovorin is normally
started 24 hours after methotrexate is given. This delay gives the methotrexate
a chance to exert its anti cancer effects.
Leucovorin is also used by itself to treat certain anemia problems when folic acid
deficiency is present.
Note: We strongly encourage you to talk with your health
care professional about your specific medical condition and treatments. The information
contained in this website is meant to be helpful and educational, but is not a substitute
for medical advice.
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