Care During Chemotherapy and Beyond
Generic name: BCG
Trade names: TheraCys®, TICE®
Chemocare.com uses generic names in all descriptions of drugs. TheraCys and TICE
are trade names for BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin). In some cases, health care professionals
may use the trade name TheraCys or TICE when referring to the generic drug name
Drug type: TheraCys is a biologic response modifier.
(For more detail, see "How this drug works" section below).
What this drug is used for:
- Bladder cancer
- Immunization against tuberculosis
Note: If a drug has been approved for one use, physicians sometimes
elect to use this same drug for other problems if they believe it might be helpful.
How this drug is given:
- BCG is given by intravesicular infusion. This means it is given directly into
the bladder through a urinary catheter. The urinary catheter is inserted through
the urethra (the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside the body).
The BCG solution is injected into the catheter, which is then clamped. Clamping
the catheter allows the medication to remain in the bladder. The patient is
encouraged to roll from side to side and to lie on their backs to help the medication
reach all areas of the bladder. After a predetermined time (usually about
2 hours) the catheter is unclamped and the fluid is drained. The catheter
is then removed.
- BCG treatment is given as an outpatient procedure.
- The treatments are usually given on a weekly basis for 6 weeks followed by treatments
once a month for 6 to 12 months. Your doctor will determine your exact treatment
schedule and dose.
Important things to remember about the side effects of BCG:
- Most people do not experience all of the side effects listed.
- Side effects are often predictable in terms of their onset and duration.
- Side effects are almost always reversible and will go away after therapy is complete.
- There are many options to minimize or prevent side effects.
- There is no relationship between the presence or severity of side effects and the
effectiveness of the medication.
The following side effects are common (occurring in greater than 30%) for
patients having BCG treatments:
- Painful or difficult urination, urgency (see bladder problems)
- Urinary frequency (see bladder problems)
- Blood in the urine (hematuria) (see bladder problems)
- Flu-like symptoms; fever, chills, malaise, fatigue, generalized aches and pains.
These are less common side effects (occurring in 10-29%) for patients receiving
- Bladder irritation or infection
A rare, but potentially serious side effect of BCG is called systemic BCG reaction.
This systemic reaction to BCG can occur following exposure to BCG within one week
of either biopsy, TUR(trans-urethral resection) surgery, or traumatic bladder catheterization.
Symptoms of a systemic BCG reaction include unexplained high fever lasting 24-48
hours or more, chills, confusion, dizziness or lightheadedness (symptoms of low
blood pressure) or shortness of breath. A systemic BCG reaction can cause
pneumonitis, hepatitis, prostatitis, epididimal-orchitis, respiratory distress and
other symptoms of sepsis (systemic infection).
Not all side effects are listed above, some that are rare (occurring in less
than 10% of patients) are not listed here. However, you should always inform
your health care provider if you experience any unusual symptoms.
When to contact your doctor or health care provider:
Contact your healthcare provider immediately,
day or night, if you should experience any of the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
The following symptoms require medical attention, but are not an emergency.
Contact your health care provider within 24 hours of noticing any of the
- Fever of 39.5(C (103(F) or higher within 24 hours.
- Fever of 38.5(C (101(F) or higher after 48 hours.
- Blood in the urine.
- Extreme fatigue (unable to perform self care activities).
- Fever, chills, malaise, flu-like symptoms, increased fatigue or an increase in urinary
symptoms (such as burning or pain on urination) are not uncommon. However,
if these increase in severity, or last more than 48 hours let your doctor know.
Always inform your health care provider if you experience any unusual symptoms.
- Before starting BCG treatments, make sure you tell your doctor about any other medications
you are taking (including over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, or herbal remedies).
- BCG may be inadvisable in tuberculin positive individuals.
- Inform your health care professional if you are pregnant or may be pregnant
prior to starting this treatment. Pregnancy category C (use in pregnancy only
if benefit to mother outweighs risk to the fetus).
- To avoid transmission of BCG to others, for 6 hours after treatment patients should
void (urinate) while seated to avoid splashing of urine. Urine voided during
this time should be disinfected with 2 cups of household bleach into the toilet
water and letting it stand for 15-20 minutes before flushing.
- Men having this treatment can pass on BCG during sex. To protect your partner
from coming into contact with BCG, you should not have sex for 48 hours after each
treatment. Use a condom if you have sex at other times during the treatment
course and for six weeks after treatment has ended.
- For both men and women: Do not conceive a child (get pregnant) while taking BCG
treatments. Barrier methods of contraception, such as condoms, are recommended.
Discuss with your doctor when you may safely become pregnant after therapy.
- Do not breast-feed while taking this medication.
- Limit fluid intake for 6-10 hrs before treatment and for 2 hours following installation
of BCG, afterward resume normal fluid intake.
- Avoid caffeine and alcohol on treatment days. This is due to the diuretic
and irritant properties of these substances.
- Get plenty of rest.
- Maintain good nutrition.
- If you experience symptoms or side effects, be sure to discuss them with your health
care team. They can prescribe medications and/or offer other suggestions that
are effective in managing such problems.
Monitoring and testing:
You will be monitored regularly by your doctor while you are receiving treatment
with BCG. Your doctor will order blood tests and other tests as needed to monitor
side effects and check your response to therapy.
How this drug works:
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is an inactivated form of the tuberculosis
bacteria. It works against cancer as a biologic response modifier. Biological
response modifiers are substances that have no direct antitumor effect but are able
to trigger the immune system to indirectly affect tumors.
BCG is thought to bring about an immune response in the bladder by triggering an
inflammatory reaction in the bladder. This reaction brings disease-fighting
white blood cells and cytokines (proteins produced by one cell that influence the
behavior of other cells) to the bladder. The immune system cells then fight
directly against the tumor cells. The cytokine response changes the environment
in the bladder that may inhibit future tumor growth and progression.
Note: We strongly encourage you to talk with your health care professional
about your specific medical condition and treatments. The information contained
in this website is meant to be helpful and educational, but is not a substitute
for medical advice.
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