(flure oh YOOR a sil)
Fluorouracil is the generic name for the trade name drug Adrucil®. In some cases, health care professionals may use the trade name Adrucil® when referring
to the generic drug name fluorouracil.
Fluorouracil is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. Fluorouracil is classified as an "antimetabolite." (For more detail,
see "How Fluorouracil Works" section below).
What Fluorouracil Is Used For:
- Colon and rectal cancer
- Breast cancer
- Gastrointestinal cancers including: anal, esophageal, pancreas and gastric (stomach)
- Head and neck cancer
- Unknown primary (squamous cell)
- Neuroendocrine tumors
- Thymic cancers
- Cervical cancer
- Bladder cancer
- Hepatobiliary cancers
- Topical use (cream or solution) in basal cell cancer of the skin and actinic keratoses (-see document Fluorouracil ( cream))
Note: If a drug has been approved for one use, physicians may elect to use this same drug for other problems if they believe it may be helpful.
How Fluorouracil Is Given:
- As an injection into the vein (intravenous or IV), or as an infusion. The amount of time and schedule of infusion varies depending on a specific
protocol, it may be given over several hours to several weeks.
- As a topical ointment, a thin coating is applied to the affected skin lesions twice a day, treatment may continue over several weeks. (see document
The amount of Fluorouracil that you will receive depends on many factors, including your height and weight, your general health or other health problems,
and the type of cancer or condition being treated. Your doctor will determine your dose and schedule.
Important things to remember about the side effects of Fluorouracil:
- Most people do not experience all of the side effects of Fluorouracil listed.
- Fluorouracil side effects are often predictable in terms of their onset duration and severity.
- Fluorouracil side effects will improve after therapy is complete
- Fluorouracil side effects may be quite manageable. There are many options to minimize or prevent the side effects of Fluorouracil.
The following side effects are common (occurring in greater than 30%) for patients taking Fluorouracil:
Meaning low point, nadir is the point in time
between chemotherapy cycles in which you experience low blood counts.
Onset: 7-10 days
Nadir: 9-14 days
Recovery: 21-28 days
These side effects are less common side effects (occurring in about 10-29%) of patients receiving Fluorouracil:
: Dry, cracking, peeling skin. Darkening of the skin (hyperpigmentation), darkening of the skin where previous radiation treatment has been given
- discoloration, loss of nails (rare)(see skin reactions).
Hand -foot syndrome
(Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia or PPE) -skin rash, swelling, redness, pain and/or peeling of the skin on the palms of hands and soles of feet.
Usually mild, starting 5-6 weeks after start of treatment. May require reductions in the dose of the medication.
Serious adverse reactions to Fluorouracil are; chest pain, EKG changes and increases in cardiac enzymes - which may indicate problems with the heart (see Cardiovascular events). These symptoms are very rare but
increased for patients with a prior history of heart disease.
Not all side effects are listed above. Some that are rare--occurring in less than 10% of patients-- are not listed here. However, you should always inform
your health care provider if you experience any unusual symptoms.
When to contact your doctor or health care provider:
Contact your health care provider immediately, day or night, if you should experience any of the following symptoms:
- Fever of 100.4° F (38° C) or higher, chills (possible signs of infection)
The following symptoms require medical attention, but are not an emergency. Contact your health care provider within 24 hours of noticing any of the
- Nausea (interferes with ability to eat and unrelieved with prescribed medication)
- Vomiting (vomiting more than 4-5 times in a 24 hour period)
- Diarrhea (4-6 episodes in a 24-hour period) despite anti-diarrhea medication and diet alterations.
- Unusual bleeding or bruising
- Black or tarry stools, or blood in your stools
- Blood in the urine
- Extreme fatigue (unable to carry on self-care activities)
- Mouth sores (painful redness, swelling or ulcers)
- Tingling or burning, redness, swelling of the palms of the hands or soles of feet
Always inform your health care provider if you experience any unusual symptoms.
- Before starting Fluorouracil treatment, make sure you tell your doctor about any other medications you are taking (including prescription,
over-the-counter, vitamins, herbal remedies, etc.). Do not take aspirin or products containing aspirin unless your doctor specifically permits this.
- Do not receive any kind of immunization or vaccination without your doctor's approval while taking Fluorouracil. Inform your health care professional if
you are pregnant or may be pregnant prior to starting this treatment. Pregnancy category D (Fluorouracil may be hazardous to the fetus. Women who are
pregnant or become pregnant must be advised of the potential hazard to the fetus).
- For both men and women: Use contraceptives, and do not conceive a child (get pregnant) while taking Fluorouracil. Barrier methods of contraception, such
as condoms, are recommended.
- Do not breast feed while taking Fluorouracil.
- Use of ice chips in the mouth 10-15 minutes before and after IV injections of Fluorouracil may reduce the incidence and severity of mouth sores.
- To help treat/prevent mouth sores, use a soft toothbrush, and rinse three times a day with 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of baking soda and/or 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of
salt mixed with 8 ounces of water.
- Drink at least two to three quarts of fluid every 24 hours, unless you are instructed otherwise.
- You may be at risk of infection so try to avoid crowds or people with colds and/or not feeling well, and report fever or any other signs of infection
immediately to your health care provider.
- Follow regimen of anti-diarrhea medication as prescribed by your health care professional.
- Eat foods that may help reduce diarrhea (see managing side effects - diarrhea).
- Avoid sun exposure. Wear SPF 30 (or higher) sunblock and protective clothing.
- In general, drinking alcoholic beverages should be kept to a minimum or avoided completely. You should discuss this with your doctor.
- Get plenty of rest.
- Maintain good nutrition.
- Remain as active as you are able. Gentle exercise is encouraged, such as a daily walk.
- If you experience symptoms or side effects, be sure to discuss them with your health care team. They can prescribe medications and/or offer other
suggestions that are effective in managing such problems.
- Prevention of hand-foot syndrome. You may need to modify normal activities of daily living to reduce friction and heat exposure to hands and feet, for
about a week after treatment. (for more information see – ( Managing side effects: hand foot syndrome).
- Keep palms of hands and soles of feet moist using emollients.
- You may experience drowsiness or dizziness; avoid driving or engaging in tasks that require alertness until your response to the drug is known.
Monitoring and Testing:
You will be checked regularly by your health care professional while you are taking Fluorouracil, to monitor side effects and check your response to
therapy. Periodic blood work will be obtained to monitor your complete blood count (CBC) as well as tests to monitor the function of other organs (such as
your kidneys and liver)
How Fluorouracil Works:
Cancerous tumors are characterized by cell division, which is no longer controlled as it is in normal tissue. "Normal" cells stop dividing when they come
into contact with like cells, a mechanism known as contact inhibition. Cancerous cells lose this ability. Cancer cells no longer have the normal checks and
balances in place that control and limit cell division. The process of cell division, whether normal or cancerous, occurs through the cell cycle. The cell
cycle goes from the resting phase, through active growing phases, and then to mitosis (division).
The ability of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells depends on its ability to halt cell division. Usually, the drugs work by damaging the RNA or DNA that
tells the cell how to copy itself in division. If the cells are unable to divide, they die. The faster the cells are dividing, the more likely it is that
chemotherapy will kill the cells, causing the tumor to shrink. They also induce cell suicide (self-death or apoptosis).
Chemotherapy drugs that affect cells only when they are dividing are called cell-cycle specific. Chemotherapy drugs that affect cells when they are at rest
are called cell-cycle non-specific. The scheduling of chemotherapy is set based on the type of cells, rate at which they divide, and the time at which a
given drug is likely to be effective. This is why chemotherapy is typically given in cycles.
Chemotherapy is most effective at killing cells that are rapidly dividing. Unfortunately, chemotherapy does not know the difference between the cancerous
cells and the normal cells. The "normal" cells will grow back and be healthy but in the meantime, side effects occur. The "normal" cells most commonly
affected by chemotherapy are the blood cells, the cells in the mouth, stomach and bowel, and the hair follicles; resulting in low blood counts, mouth
sores, nausea, diarrhea, and/or hair loss. Different drugs may affect different parts of the body.
Fluorouracil belongs to the category of chemotherapy called antimetabolites. Antimetabolites are very similar to normal substances within the cell. When the
cells incorporate these substances into the cellular metabolism, they are unable to divide. Antimetabolites are cell-cycle specific. They attack cells at
very specific phases in the cycle. Antimetabolites are classified according to the substances with which they interfere. Fluorouracil is classified as a
pyrimidine analog because it interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis by mimicking the building blocks necessary for synthesis.
Note: We strongly encourage you to talk with your health care professional about your specific medical condition and treatments. The information contained
in this website is meant to be helpful and educational, but is not a substitute for medical advice.